By Anton Zhukov, Electrical Engineer, an expert in uninterrupted power solutions
To curb the limited supply and high price of battery-grade lithium, alternative sodium-ion batteries are one of the most developed technologies that can potentially become a viable option in many applications. However, new battery technology requires years of engineering for successful commercialization — and with the accelerating demand, there remains a risk of battery shortages in the mid-term. Let’s compare the two technologies and contemplate the feasibility of using sodium-ion batteries in industrial machinery, such as material handling equipment and other applications.
Abundance and cost comparison
The natural abundance of sodium (Na), the Earth’s fifth most abundant element, constituting 3% of its mass, is remarkably higher than that of lithium (Li), signifying its potential significance in battery production. Sodium concentration in the Earth’s crust is approximately 1,180 times greater than lithium’s and an astonishing 60,000 times greater in the sea (see Table 1).
|Crust (mg/kg or ppm)||Sea (mg/L or ppm)|
|Sodium (Na)||2.36 × 104||1.08 × 104|
|Lithium (Li)||2.0 × 101||1.8 × 10-1|
Table 1. Na and Li in the Earth’s crust and in the sea. Source: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 103rd Edition (2022-2023).
One significant advantage lies in the cost of sodium. A simple comparison of prices on the Shanghai Metals Market reveals a striking 20-fold difference in prices of pure sodium and lithium compounds (June 2023).
- Sodium carbonate costs approximately $290 per metric ton. (Source: Trading Economics)
- Lithium carbonate (99.5% battery grade), on the other hand, commands a significantly higher price of approximately $35,000 per metric ton, even after a sharp decline since mid-July 2022. (Source: Shanghai Metals Market)
The current demand for sodium within the battery industry is negligible, especially in contrast to the surging demand for lithium. The year 2022 marked a notable milestone for lithium-ion batteries, as the prices of battery packs increased for the first time in 12 years since BloombergNEF (BNEF) began tracking prices. The price reached $151 per kW-h, largely due to the soaring demand for passenger electric vehicles (EVs), electrical industrial equipment, and energy storage manufacturing.
Battery cell structure and performance
Similar to lithium-ion cells, sodium-ion battery cells have positive and negative electrodes, a separator, and an electrolyte. Both battery types are based on the “rocking chair” principle: during the charging and discharging processes, positive ions travel back and forth between the two electrodes of the battery, as shown in Figure 1.
As in the early days of lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries use a cobalt-containing active component. Specifically, sodium cobalt oxide (NaCoO2) is the primary active material for sodium-ion cells, mirroring the use of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) in lithium-ion cells. However, as technology advanced and concerns arose about cobalt’s sustainability and cost, the industry began exploring alternatives.
In lithium-ion batteries, cathode materials such as nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) and nickel cobalt aluminum (NCA) are increasingly being substituted with more abundant and cost-effective lithium iron phosphate (LFP) chemistry. Similarly, researchers and manufacturers are actively working toward substituting cobalt-containing compounds in sodium-ion battery cathodes with more sustainable and economical elements.
Similarities in specific energy between Na-ion and LFP cells make sodium-ion batteries potentially well-suited for applications currently using LFP battery packs, such as industrial batteries. Such applications include EVs, e-buses, industrial and off-highway vehicles, stationary storage, marine and rail transport, and power tools.
However, it remains to be seen whether the actual performance of batteries on a pack level differs significantly from what is reported on a cell level. We will need to see Na-ion battery packs’ performance in real life to confirm their data on the number of cycles before degradation, loss of capacity in extreme cold and hot conditions, and other specs.
|Parameter||Sodium-ion (Na-ion)||Lithium-ion (LFP)|
|Lifetime||2,000 to 6,000 cycles||3,000 cycles|
|Cell voltage||2.8 to 3.5 V||3.0 to 4.5 V|
|Low temperature performance||At -20 °C capacity retention rate is above 90%||At -20 °C capacity retention rate is above 70%|
|Safety||An aluminum anode current collector allows cells to be deeply discharged.||Over-discharge can lead to the dissolution of copper current collectors.|
|Specific energy||120 to 190 W-h/kg||93 to 186 W-h/kg|
Table 2. Overall comparison of sodium-ion cells against Lithium-ion cells. Sources: A non-academic perspective on the future of lithium-based batteries (Supplementary Information) and Sodium-ion Batteries 2023-2033: Technology, Players, Markets, and Forecasts.
Sodium-ion battery pack advantages
Sustainability. The abundance of Sodium (Na) in the world’s oceans presents a compelling opportunity for large-scale sodium extraction, leveraging existing technologies. Presently, brine extraction on the mainland, followed by water evaporation, chemical separation of sodium-containing salts, and subsequent chemical recovery of sodium, is a commonly employed method. However, future advancements could replace this approach with seawater desalination, offering the advantage of clean drinking water as a by-product of sodium extraction. This innovative technology has already been extensively discussed in Nature. Further development of this technology, such as anode-free sodium metal batteries, can help reduce the carbon footprint and energy use during battery manufacturing and recycling processes.
Lower cost. The specific price for sodium-ion battery packs is lower today and is expected to decrease as production volume grows and technology advances. Unlike lithium, there is no foreseeable shortage of raw sodium. Figure 2 shows a price comparison for different types of batteries.
However, as per the Global EV Outlook 2023 by the International Energy Agency (IEA), Na-ion batteries currently do not offer the same energy density as Li-ion. With energy densities ranging from 75 to 160 W-h/kg for sodium-ion batteries compared to 120–260 W-h/kg for lithium-ion batteries, there exists a disparity in energy storage capacity. This disparity may make sodium-ion batteries a good fit for off-highway, industrial, and light urban commercial vehicles with lower range requirements and for stationary storage applications. These applications prioritize cost-effectiveness and sustainability over maximizing the driving range of passenger EVs.
Gigafactories can be retrofitted to produce Na-ion cells relatively quickly. Sodium-ion Batteries 2023-2033: Technology, Players, Markets, and Forecasts argues that Na-ion is a drop-in technology for the current production lines of Li-ion batteries. This means that if sodium batteries will indeed start to replace lithium in some applications, manufacturers can switch to the new chemistry very fast.
Sodium-ion batteries for material handling equipment
Material handling equipment (MHE) has specific requirements for its applications:
- Industrial equipment utilization rates are high, with up to 18 work hours per day and short breaks. Automated equipment, such as AMRs and AGVs, can work even more hours per day.
- Chargers are typically located within the operation facility, and there is no “range anxiety,” as batteries can charge frequently and rapidly during scheduled and random breaks.
- A harsh industrial environment requires the equipment to withstand extreme temperatures, vibration, and moisture.
Given these specific requirements, MHE requires lower specific battery energy (W-h/kg) but higher specific power (W/kg) than passenger EVs. If sodium-ion technologies can meet the challenge of delivering higher power and durability, they may indeed have a bright future in the MHE industry. And unlike in EVs, extra battery weight is often welcome as a counterweight. A simultaneous development of demand for lithium-ion and sodium-ion forklift batteries is quite possible, as is sodium-ion battery packs becoming a direct competitor to TPPL lead-acid batteries, which are currently used in applications with lower power demands.
Active manufacturers of sodium-ion batteries
According to IEA’s Global EV Outlook 2023, there are nearly 30 sodium-ion battery manufacturing plants currently operating, planned, or under construction for a combined capacity of over 100 GW-h, and almost all of them are in China. For comparison, the total U.S. manufacturing capacity of lithium-ion batteries in 2022 is estimated at 110 GW-h.
Within the next few years, we will see if this new technology can be scaled and achieve wide commercialization or if it will remain a niche product along with many other battery chemistries. Below are a few key players that have made significant progress in the development and commercialization of sodium-ion batteries.
CATL. In July 2021, CATL confirmed the launch of sodium-ion products, signaling its entry into the sodium-ion battery market. In April 2023, CATL announced that Chery passenger cars will be equipped with its EV sodium-ion batteries, indicating massive commercial adoption.
BYD. In December 2022, BYD said it will mass-produce sodium-ion batteries and incorporate them into its Qin EV, Dolphin, and Seagull models. Other Chinese developers racing to launch sodium batteries for EVs are Farasis Energy and HiNa Battery.
Tiamat. Tiamat is an American start-up focused on designing, developing, and producing sodium-ion technology. The company achieved significant milestones, including the launch of the first 18650 Na-ion cell in November 2015. Today, Tiamat is working on the construction of a gigafactory on French soil in the coming years.
Faradion. The British sodium-ion battery technology company Faradion was acquired by Reliance New Energy Solar (RNES) in India. In December 2022, Faradion completed its first sodium-ion battery energy storage installation, showcasing progress in the commercialization of its technology.
Natron Energy. Based in California, Natron Energy is a start-up specializing in sodium-ion batteries. United Airlines is among its investors. Natron is targeting data centers and telecom applications. In April 2021, Natron Energy and Lonza Specialty Ingredients (LSI) announced their agreement for LSI to supply high volumes of Prussian blue materials for Natron’s sodium-ion energy storage products.
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